Cappadocia is a unique region in the world with its unusual rock formations,charming nature,historical and cultural items. This unusual formation of the region became a refuge for many nations and civilizations and allowed the first christians spread the christianity under pressure by carving churches and schools into the rock.

Formation of the region are based on pre-historic era. During the third geological period the ashes from the lava of the eruption of the Erciyes and Hasan mountain and the mountain göllüdağı between them covered the plateau with a soft layer of tufa. The upper part of this layer is covered with a thin lava layer consisted of hard basalt.

Rain,water infiltrate from the cracks formed in the upper layer began to wear the soft tufa.Temperature changes and wind accelerated wear. In this way, cones that have hats from hard basaltic rocks were formed. Tuff layers without hard basalt layer were transformed into valleys by erosion. Between the people this interesting shaped rocks were called the fairy chimneys.

Human settlements of Cappadocia ranges from the Palaeolithic period. The first written history begins with Hittites. By the collapsion of the Hittite kingdom the region enters the dominance of Assyrian and Frig. Persians dominate the region in VI th century B.C.The Persians called the region katpatuka meanning land of beautiful horses.

332 B.C. Alexander the great defeats the Persians but encounters great resistance in Cappadocia. In this period, Cappadocia kingdom is established.As a Persian aristocrat Ariarathes becomes ruler. As a successful ruler Ariarathes expands the kingdom of Cappadocia borders to black sea .Later in the power of Roman subjugation the kingdom becomes the Roman province after 17 A.C, much later it was a region of Byzantian empire.

III. th century A.C.,Christians come to the region then the region become the center of training area for them. Between 303-308 years the pressure applied to christians firmly increases.Cappadocia is an ideal place to protect from pressure and spread christian teachings. Deep valleys and soft volcanic rock shelters, that they carved from the rocks create a secure area against Roman soldiers.After IV. century becomes the period called the "fathers of Cappadocia".

Cappadocia is also mentioned in the Biblical account given in the book of Acts 2:9. The Cappadocians were named as one group hearing the Gospel account from Galileans in their own language on the day of Pentecost shortly after the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Acts 2:5 seems to suggest that the Cappadocians in this account were "God-fearing Jews".

But the importance of the region, reaches its peak point with III. Leon’s fulminate to icons. In the face of this situation, some people supporting the icons begins to asylum to the region.İkonoklasm action will take more than a hundred years (726-843). In this period even some Cappadocian churches were under the influence of İkonoklasm the icon supporters continue worshipping easily.In this era the Cappadocian monasteries are quite developed.

However, in this period, the Arab invasion to the Christians of Anatolia and Cappadocia region begins. The people escaping from the invasions causes a change of the church design in the region. XI th and XII th A.D Cappadocia is ruled by Seljuks. Following this , a troubleless time passes during Ottoman sovereignty.Last Christians in the region with the exchange, in 1924-26 left Cappadocia leaving behind good architectural examples.

Göreme is the heart of Cappadocia has become centre of monastry between 300-1200 A.C. First Christian settlement extends to the Roman period. The churches carved into rocks such as Yusuf Koç, Ortahane, Durmus Kadir and Bezirhane and the valleys Uzundere, Zemi valley,içeridere bağlıdere reflects us the mystical date.

Göreme open air museum is the most visited monastery community in cappadocia and the most famous historical site in Turkey.Inside the museum there are more than thirty chapels and churches with exquisite frescoes dating to 9th 10th century.

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